Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from drinking well water available in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 106 (2014) 188–194.

A. Machado1; A.A. Bordalo2

1Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS-UP), University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto, Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR ), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.
Electronic address: anaphmachado@gmail.com.
2Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS-UP), University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto, Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR ), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract: The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes are a major public health concern worldwide, being even proposed as emerging contaminants. The aquatic environment is a recognized reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes have been recently detected in drinking water. In this study, the water quality and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic culturable bacteria were characterized seasonally in wells that serve the population of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) as the sole source of water for drinking and other domestic proposes.

The results revealed that well water was unfit for human consumption independently of the season, owing to high acidity and heavy fecal contamination. Moreover, potentially pathogenic bacteria, which showed resistance to the most prescribed antibiotics in Guinea-Bissau, were isolated from well water, posing an additional health risk. Our results suggest that well water not only fosters the transmission of potential pathogenic bacteria, but also represents an important reservoir for the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria, that can aggravate the potential to cause disease in a very vulnerable population that has no other alternative but to consume such water.

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Vol 4 No 2 pp 214–222, 2014 doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.114 | (Order info)

Removal of As(III) and As(V) in surface modified ceramic filters

Emily C. Robbins, Jing Guo and Craig D. Adams

Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA E-mail: craig.adams@usu.edu

A new point-of-use (POU) technology using porous ceramic filters with a ferric-iron coating was used to achieve simultaneous arsenic (III) and (V) removal along with filtrative disinfection. The surface modified ceramic filters (SMCF) were produced using standard ceramic filter methods with combustible materials to create a porous ceramic during firing, followed by coating with a ferric oxide surface coating. A majority of the testing was conducted using 2.0-cm thick, 1.3-cm diameter ceramic plugs to simulate full-scale filters in column studies. The SMCF was capable of filtering arsenic for long periods of time with essentially no As breakthrough. As in source water was reduced from 250 μg/L to less than the 10 μg/L WHO guideline for arsenic for 875 and 1,618 bed volumes (or 360 and 666 effective filter runs) with 0.51 and 2 M iron-coated filters, respectively. There was no significant difference in As(V) or As(III) removal performance over a pH range of 6 to 9. Filtration of lake water containing natural organic matter at 5 mg/L as C reduced performance of As(III) and As(V) removal approximately 34 to 38%, respectively. Other metals including cadmium, copper and chromate were also readily adsorbed by the SMCF while selenate was not.

This paper is in the public domain: verbatim copying and redistribution of this paper are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the paper’s original DOI. Anyone using the paper is requested to properly cite and acknowledge the source as Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4(2), 206–213. doi:10.2166/washdev.2013.171 | (Order info)

The effect of increasing grain size in biosand water filters in combination with ultraviolet disinfection

Timothy E. Frank, Matthew L. Scheie, Victoria Cachro and Andrew S. Muñoz

2354 Fairchild Drive Suite 6J-117, USAF Academy, CO 80840, 01-719-660-6903, USA E-mail: tefrank18@gmail.com

With sand less than 0.70 mm often difficult to source in the field, it is of interest to study larger grained sand for use in biosand water filters (BSF). This study examined how sand grain size affects biological sand water filtration and how the combination of biological sand filtration and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection affects drinking water quality. Two BSFs were built: a control with maximum grain size, dmax = 0.70 mm and an experimental with grain sizes ranging from 0.70 mm to dmax = 2.0 mm. Untreated water was passed through each BSF daily. Results show Escherichia coli and turbidity removal characteristics of the control and experimental BSFs were not significantly different from one another. Both BSFs produced water that met World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines for turbidity, and although E. coli reduction was over 98% for each BSF, a high initial bacteria concentration resulted in effluent levels above WHO guidelines. Subsequently, effluent from each BSF was placed in clear plastic bottles under UV light, after which water from each BSF met E. coli guidelines. The data yielded promising results for using larger sand in BSFs, but longer duration studies with more data points are needed.

Foreign Assistance: Briefing on U.S. International Water-Related Assistance, 2014. Government Accounting Office.

Objectives

  • 1. Funding: How have U.S. agencies distributed funding for international water-related assistance, and to what extent have the agencies complied with congressional spending requirements?
  • 2. Agency roles: What are the roles and responsibilities of U.S. agencies providing international water-related assistance?
  • 3. Staffing: How are U.S. agencies staffed to provide international water-related assistance?
  • 4. Coordination: How do U.S. agencies coordinate and collaborate on international water-related programs?

U.S. agencies provide international water-related assistance in four sectors:

  • Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) includes access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation services, and adoption of key hygiene behaviors.
  • Water resources management (WRM) includes natural resources management and protection of watersheds and ecosystems.
  • Water productivity (WP) includes management of water for agriculture, energy, and industry.
  • Disaster risk reduction (DRR) includes activities intended to reduce vulnerability to disasters and increase capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disaster shocks.

Regardless of the setting, the local institutional framework for water and sanitation services will have a huge impact on the design and effectiveness of a WASH programme. These frameworks are not always functioning well, so the implementing organisation must answer some basic questions: who has the mandate to provide these services and how can we help them? What is the regulatory framework and which services does it cover? What are the bottlenecks to change?

In many cases, creative thinking is required to find solutions and provide essential services that comply with regulations. Drawing upon case studies from WSUP and the USAID-funded WASHplus project, this webinar explores how service provision can be improved in contexts with less-than-perfect institutional frameworks.

Presenters:

  • Baghi Baghirathan, Programme Director, WSUP, will talk about “Breaking the barriers to water connections in low-income urban communities: experience from Mozambique”
  • Orlando Hernandez, Monitoring & Evaluation Specialist, WASHplus, will talk about “Flexible institutional partnerships to support sustainable WASH services in Madagascar”

Panelists:

  • Baghi Baghirathan, Programme Director, WSUP
  • Orlando Hernandez, Monitoring & Evaluation Specialist, WASHplus
  • Andy Narracott, Deputy CEO, WSUP
  • Jonathan Annis, Sanitation and Innovation Adviser, WASHplus

Moderator: Guy Norman, Head of Evaluation, Research and Learning, WSUP

Global Waters – July 2014

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A case study of income generation activities in Nairobi with the LifeStraw Community filter, 2014.

Author: Felix Nyakundi Mangera

The LifeStraw Community filter is a 25 liter capacity filtration device which used hollow fiber membrane technology and does not need cartridges, electricity, chemicals and is easy to maintain and operate. The filter has a lifetime capacity of 80,000 liters. Access to safe drinking water is a challenge in many areas and this filter could be a solution for small scale water supply. We wanted to pilot different business models around Nairobi to see if the filter could be used for income generation. This would make the filter more interesting for microfinance projects and potential customers of the filter who would become micro-entrepreneurs.

The power of creative thinking: working within and around challenging institutional frameworks

Join WSUP and the WASHplus project for this webinar and discussion

  • Date:  Wednesday, July 23, 2014
  • Time: 10:00 AM – 11:00 AM EDT (New York);  15.00 PM – 16:00 PM BST (London)

Register today and reserve your webinar seat:
https://www1.gotomeeting.com/register/846901233

Regardless of the setting, the local institutional framework for water and sanitation services will have a huge impact on the design and effectiveness of a WASH programme. These frameworks are not always functioning well, so the implementing organisation must answer some basic questions: who has the mandate to provide these services and how can we help them? What is the regulatory framework and which services does it cover? What are the bottlenecks to change? In many cases, creative thinking is required to find solutions and provide essential services that comply with regulations. Drawing upon case studies from WSUP and the USAID-funded WASHplus project, this webinar will explore how service provision can be improved in contexts with less-than-perfect institutional frameworks: we invite you to participate and share your experience!

Presenters:

  • Baghi Baghirathan, Programme Director, WSUP, will talk about “Breaking the barriers to water connections in low-income urban communities: experience from Mozambique”
  • Orlando Hernandez, Monitoring & Evaluation Specialist, WASHplus, will talk about “Flexible institutional partnerships to support sustainable WASH services in Madagascar”

An interactive panel discussion will follow the presentations. Questions are welcome!

Panelists:

  • Baghi Baghirathan, Programme Director, WSUP
  • Orlando Hernandez, Monitoring & Evaluation Specialist, WASHplus
  • Andy Narracott, Deputy CEO, WSUP
  • Jonathan Annis, Sanitation and Innovation Adviser, WASHplus

ModeratorGuy Norman, Head of Evaluation, Research and Learning, WSUP

Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study. PLoS One, March 2014.

Paul R. Hunter, Helen Risebro, Marie Yen, et al.

Background – Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools.

Methods and Findings – We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio = 0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27–0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR = 0.98 95%CI 0.96–1.00).

Conclusion – There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children.

Evaluation of A Point-Of Use Water Purification System (Llaveoz) in a Rural Setting of Chiapas, Mexico. J Microbiol Exp 2014, 1(3): 00015

*Corresponding author: Javier Gutierrez-Jimenez, University of Science and Arts of Chiapas, Libramiento norte poniente#1150, Col. Lajas Maciel, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico, Tel: +52-9616170440/ 4303; E-mail: javier.gutierrez@unicach.mx

Access to potable water is a priority for highly-marginalized rural communities of Chiapas, Mexico where consumption of poorly sanitized water has fostered severe diarrheal diseases among children. Interventions aimed to reduce contaminants present in water are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of a point of use water purification system, Llaveoz, to eradicate total coliform (TC) bacteria and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) strains in 62 paired water samples obtained from households during the dry and rainy season. TC was determined by the membrane filtration method whereas DEC strains were evaluated by a multiplex PCR approach. After Llaveoz treatment, water samples collected during the dry season (N=20) had an 80.3% reduction of TC counts (p<0.05). Similarly, TC were significantly reduced (72.3%, (p<0.05)) in water samples treated during the rainy season (N=42). A total of 28 E. coli strains were isolated of which 14.3% (N=4) were identified as DEC strains (ETEC (N=2), EAEC (N=1) or EIEC (N=1)) in untreated water samples. Llaveoz-treated water did not contain DEC strains. Thus, the Llaveoz system represents an alternative method to obtain more pure water in regions where potable water sources are not available.

The Llaveoz™ water disinfection system (patent US2011/0215037 A1) consists in a plastic faucet which is placed at the base of a water container used at home for water storage; the faucet contains an ultraviolet light bulb UVC type which uses electricity (110V or 12V). Its light goes on when the faucet is opened in order to pour clean water. To eliminate suspended solids, parasites and bacteria, the faucet is connected to a microfiltration cartridge which contains polypropylene membranes with 0.1µm pore diameter. In vitro studies demonstrate that Llaveoz is able to eliminate ∼99, 100% and ∼99% of parasites, bacteria and virus, respectively. Llaveoz purification system is fabricated and distributed to rural and peri-urban communities by EOZ group, a non-profit organization funded by Flor Cassassuce with a self-funding mechanism.