American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, April 2012
Using Limes and Synthetic Psoralens to Enhance Solar Disinfection of Water (SODIS): A Laboratory Evaluation with Norovirus, Escherichia coli, and MS2
Alexander S. Harding and Kellogg J. Schwab
We investigated the use of psoralens and limes to enhance solar disinfection of water (SODIS) using an UV lamp and natural sunlight experiments. SODIS conditions were replicated using sunlight, 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, and tap water with Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage, and murine norovirus (MNV).
Psoralens and lime acidity both interact synergistically with UV radiation to accelerate inactivation of microbes. Escherichia coli was ablated > 6.1 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry and 5.6 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice in 30-minute solar exposures, compared with a 1.5 log reduction with SODIS alone (N = 3; P < 0.001). MS2 was inactivated > 3.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry, 1.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice, and 1.4 logs by SODIS in 2.5-hour solar exposures (N = 3; P < 0.05).
MNV was resistant to SODIS, with < 2 log reductions after 6 hours. Efficacy of SODIS against human norovirus should be investigated further.