This is an annotated bibliography of 2012 HWTS studies authored or co-authored by Robert Quick so far in 2012. Ths bibliography will be updated on a periodic basis.
1 – Soc Sci Med. 2012 Aug;75(4):622-33.
Systematic review of behavior change research on point-of-use water treatment interventions in countries categorized as low- to medium-development on the human development index.
Parker Fiebelkorn A, Person B, Quick RE, Vindigni SM, Jhung M, Bowen A, Riley PL.
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Road, MS A-34, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Point-of-use water treatment (i.e., water purification at the point of consumption) has proven effective in preventing diarrhea in developing countries. However, widespread adoption has not occurred, suggesting that implementation strategies have not motivated sustained behavior change. We conducted a systematic literature review of published behavioral research on factors influencing adoption of point-of-use water treatment in countries categorized as low- to medium-development on the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index.
We used 22 key words to search peer-reviewed literature from 1950 to 2010 from OVID Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Twenty-six (1.7%) of 1551 papers met our four inclusion criteria: 1) implemented a point-of-use water treatment intervention, 2) applied a behavioral intervention, 3) evaluated behavior change as the outcome, and 4) occurred in a low- or medium-development country. We reviewed these 26 publications for detailed descriptions of the water treatment intervention, theoretical rationales for the behavioral intervention, and descriptions of the evaluation.
In 5 (19%) papers, details of the behavioral intervention were fully specified. Seven (27%) papers reported using a behavioral theory in the design of the intervention and evaluation of its impact. Ten (38%) studies used a comparison or control group; 5 provided detailed descriptions. Seven (27%) papers reported high sustained use of point-of-use water treatment with rates >50% at the last recorded follow-up.
Despite documented health benefits of point-of-use water treatment interventions in reducing diarrheal diseases, we found limited peer-reviewed behavioral research on the topic. In addition, we found the existing literature often lacked detailed descriptions of the intervention for replication, seldom described the theoretical and empirical rationale for the implementation and evaluation of the intervention, and often had limitations in the evaluation methodology. The scarcity of papers on behavior change with respect to point-of-use water treatment technologies suggests that this field is underdeveloped.
2 – Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 May;86(5):860-5.
Water treatment and handwashing behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives of participants in an antenatal hygiene promotion program in Malawi.
Russo ET, Sheth A, Menon M, Wannemuehler K, Weinger M, Kudzala AC, Tauzie B, Masuku HD, Msowoya TE, Quick R.
Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are essential for preventing diarrheal diseases. To integrate hygiene improvement with antenatal care, free hygiene kits (water storage containers, water treatment solution, soap) and educational messages were distributed to pregnant women at antenatal clinics in Malawi. We assessed water treatment and hygiene practices of 275 non-pregnant friends and relatives of the hygiene kit recipients at baseline and follow-up nine months later to measure program impact on non-participants in the same communities. At follow-up, friends and relatives who did not receive kits or education were more likely than at baseline to purchase and use water treatment solution (25% versus 1%; P < 0.0001) and demonstrate correct handwashing practices (60% versus 18%; P < 0.0001). This antenatal clinic-based program resulted in improved water treatment and hygiene behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives living in the same communities as hygiene kit recipients, suggesting that program benefits extended beyond direct beneficiaries.
3 – J Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;205 Suppl 1:S56-64.
Impact of integration of hygiene kit distribution with routine immunizations on infant vaccine coverage and water treatment and handwashing practices of Kenyan mothers.
Briere EC, Ryman TK, Cartwright E, Russo ET, Wannemuehler KA, Nygren BL, Kola S, Sadumah I, Ochieng C, Watkins ML, Quick R.
Integration of immunizations with hygiene interventions may improve use of both interventions. We interviewed 1361 intervention and 1139 comparison caregivers about hygiene practices and vaccination history, distributed water treatment and hygiene kits to caregivers during infant vaccination sessions in intervention clinics for 12 months, and conducted a followup survey of 2361 intervention and 1033 comparison caregivers. We observed significant increases in reported household water treatment (30% vs 44%, P < .0001) and correct handwashing technique (25% vs 51%, P < .0001) in intervention households and no changes in comparison households. Immunization coverage improved in both intervention and comparison infants (57% vs 66%, P = .04; 37% vs 53%, P < .0001, respectively). Hygiene kit distribution during routine immunizations positively impacted household water treatment and hygiene without a negative impact on vaccination coverage. Further study is needed to assess hygiene incentives, implement alternative water quality indicators, and evaluate the impact of this intervention in other settings.