Assessing an intermittently operated household scale slow sand filter paired with household bleach for the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2013;48(7):753-9. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2013.744616.
Kennedy TJ, Anderson TA, Hernandez EA, Morse AN. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Texas Tech University , Lubbock , Texas , USA.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a contaminant of emerging concern throughout the world, including developing countries where centralized water and wastewater treatment plants are not common. In developing countries, household scale water treatment technologies such as the biosand filter (BSF) are used to improve drinking water quality. No studies currently exist on the ability of the BSF to remove EDCs.
In this experiment, the BSF was evaluated for the removal of three EDCs, estrone (E1), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Removal results were compared to the slow sand filter (SSF) from the literature, which is similar to the BSF in principal but comparisons have revealed differences in removal of other water quality parameters between SSF and BSF.
In general, the BSF minimally removed the compounds from spiked lake water as removal was less than 15% for all three compounds, though mass removal much higher than other studies in which the SSF was used. Household bleach was added to the rate was BSF effluent as suggested in order to achieve different Cl- concentrations (0.67, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/L) and subsequent removal of EDCs by oxidation was examined.
Concentrations were reduced > 98% for all compounds when the Cl- concentration was greater than 5 mg/L. Removal efficiency was > 50% at the 0.67 mg/L Cl- concentration, while almost 70% removal was observed for all compounds at the 2.0 mg/L Cl- concentration.