Below are links to third-party publications (grey literature and peer-reviewed) on the Sawyer Filter that were shared by members of the International Network on Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage following a request from Ryan Rowe, Daniele Lantagne and Carolyn Meub.
There is also a response from Sawyer Products about comments made in Derek Baker’s review of the Sawyer Filter.
May 2014 Update
A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Childhood Diarrhea Using Hollow Fiber Water Filter and/or Hygiene-Sanitation Educational Interventions. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 May 27.
Lindquist ED et al.
Safe domestic potable water supplies are urgently needed to reduce childhood diarrheal disease. In periurban neighborhoods in Cochabamba, Bolivia, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a household-level hollow fiber filter and/or behavior change communication (BCC) on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to reduce the diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years of age. In total, 952 households were followed for a period of 12 weeks post-distribution of the study interventions. Households using Sawyer PointONE filters had significantly less diarrheal disease compared with the control arm during the intervention period, which was shown by diarrheal prevalence ratios of 0.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.15-0.30) for the filter arm and 0.27 (95% CI = 0.22-0.34) for the filter and WASH BCC arm. A non-significant reduction in diarrhea prevalence was reported in the WASH BCC study arm households (0.71, 95% CI = 0.59-0.86).
Annotated Bibliography on the Sawyer Filter
Baker, Derek. (2013) Merits and Limitations of the Sawyer Filter. (PDF, 132KB)
“The Sawyer Squeeze Filter for outdoor travelis convenient for water treatment. I think it would be great as a light‐weight,occasional‐use device. For disaster relief it would also make sense to distribute Sawyer filters to make drinking water safer until permanent infrastructure can be reestablished.However as a long‐term water treatment device for remote rural areas where there is no supply chain and no one to pay for the replacement filter when the donated one clogs or breaks, I think it would be unsuitable.”
Brune, Lia, et al. (2013) Monitoring and Evaluation of a Point-‐of-‐Use Water Treatment Pilot Project in the Peruvian Amazon. (PDF, 1.9MB)
CONAPAC is currently piloting a point-‐of-use (POU) water treatment system that incorporates a Sawyer membrane filter in three communities located on the Amazon and Napo river, The small population and distance between the homes of these communities has made the installation of water treatment plants an inefficient solution. As a result, these communities were selected for a pilot project to test the effectiveness of POU treatment systems in the area.
CAWST. (n.d.) Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Product Sheet: Sawyer Point One (TM) Filter. (PDF, 152KB)
The Sawyer Point One® filter is a gravity membrane filtration technology that uses hollow fibre membranes to remove pathogens. It has a pore size of 0.1 microns, making it effective for removing bacteria, protozoa and helminths. The Point One® filter does not remove viruses (see Sawyer Point Zero Two Product Sheet for virus removal).
CAWST. (n.d.) Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Product Sheet: Sawyer Point Zero Two(TM) Purifier. (PDF, 142KB)
The Sawyer Point Zero Two® filter is a gravity membrane filtration technology that uses hollow fibre membranes to remove pathogens from water. It has a pore size of 0.02 microns, making it effective for removing viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths.
Kohlitz, Jeremy, et al. (2013) Assessing reported use and microbiological performance of a point-of-use household water filter in rural Fiji. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 3(2), pp 207–215. (Abstract/order info)
A non-governmental organisation has distributed point-of-use water filtering units in the Western Division of Fiji. We sought to understand filter utilisation and water quality: both water flowing directly out of filters and stored water. We surveyed 270 households and 6 schools on filter use and performed hydrogen sulphide bacterial indicator testing on 24 water samples directly from filters and 37 stored water samples. Our response rate was 95%. Of these, only half (52%) reported consistently filtering their drinking water. Very few (8%) reported consistent use when preparing kava, a traditional drink. Factors associated with limited filter use included lost or broken filter parts (22%) (p < 0.05) and perception of source water quality as 44% of respondents who believed their source water was safe to drink reported consistent filter use compared to 68% of respondents who did not (p < 0.01). Bacterial indicator testing using hydrogen sulphide paper-strips showed that most water samples directly from the filter (71%) and from storage vessels (76%) were contaminated. Limited levels of use and high levels of contamination in both water directly from the filter and stored water raise serious questions as to the benefit of the filter even as an interim water quality solution in this setting.
MAP International. (2012) Project 350 Plan: Part 1 of 4 – Safe Water for Rural Communities of Ecuador. (PDF, 5.2MB)
MAP International launched a Pure Water Pilot Project in 2010 to test the effects of filters on the health of rural communities. Communities from each of the three regions of Ecuador, the Coast, the Andes, and the Amazon,were included in this Pilot Project. In each community, ten families were carefully selected to use the filters, and to be community leaders. Each family received one filter, reaching a total of 50 families.
Various. (n.d.) In Their Own Words: Comments from Around the World on the Use of Sawyer Filters. (PDF, 43KB)
An excerpt: “School attendance was about 72%. After we installed Sawyer filters into the school, the attendance increased to 90%” – Dr. Feroz Ismail, HASWA. HASWA has been providing clean water to families in Pakistan since the flooding occurred. The sharing model we use provides clean water for the children during the school day and at the end of the day each child brings a two liter bottle of clean water home to share with the family.