Indonesia Clean Cookstoves Alliance (ICCA) was established to support the Indonesia Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a program initiated by the Directorate of Bioenergy, Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation,Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. ICCA will serve as a platform, for all parties concerned with the issue of Household Air Pollution, to exchange and share information, knowledge, experience, technology, in the effort of scaling up household access to clean cooking solutions. ICCA was formed with support from the World Bank and the Directorate of Bioenergy, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and with funding support provided by the Australian International Development Aid (AusAid) and Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE).

Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population. PLoS One, July 2014.

Zi-Yi Jin, et al.

Background - Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.

Objectives – To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.

Methods - A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results - Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj= 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.

Conclusions - A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

Success of Alcohol Based Cooking Fuels for Reducing Household Air Pollution. APHA Annual Meeting, Tuesday, November 18, 2014 : 10:50 AM – 11:10 AM.

Megan Graham, MPH , School of Public Health/Center for Healthy Development, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
Gulce Askin , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Brady Luceno , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA

Background. Over 3 billion people worldwide rely on biomass such as firewood, charcoal, or dung for their cooking needs. The use of biomass fuels emits high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) leading to pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infections, COPD, lung cancer, heart disease, and blindness. It is estimated that household air pollution (HAP) causes 3.5 million premature deaths annually. HAP is a top risk factors for ill-health globally and it is crucial to explore new cookstove and fuel interventions that reduce the burden of HAP and improve the health of women and children.

Research: This presentation explores the use of ethanol cooking fuel in Madagascar to reduce exposure to HAP and related illness. As part of a three year World Bank funded study, two communities in Madagascar (coastal and highland) were provided ethanol cookstoves. Following the intervention, ethanol cookstoves significantly reduced women’s exposure to CO in both regions (75% highland; 54% coastal) and children’s exposure by 60% in the highland location (non-significant reduction by 14% coastal). Households with ethanol stoves saw a significant reduction of headaches (93%) and eye irritation (72%) among women and a significant reduction in adult burns (74%) and child burns (64%). Modeling future uptake of ethanol stoves and pollutant reduction demonstrated a relative risk reduction for ALRIs among children, COPD among adults, and ischemic heart disease. The ethanol stove saved an average of 2.5 hours per day of cooking over traditional fuels. No other stove examined saw significant HAP reductions need to improve health.

Conclusion: Alcohol fuels and cookstoves have the potential to significantly reduce HAP and illness that may result from HAP exposure. Additional solutions other than solid fuel cookstoves are needed to make a significant health impact.

Addressing Refugee Health and Safety through Gender-Specific Interventions: Clean Ethanol Stoves Fuel as a Tool for Protection and Prevention. APHA Annual Conference – Monday, November 17, 2014 : 1:00 PM – 1:15 PM

Authors: Gulce Askin , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Brady Luceno , Project Gaia Inc., Gettysburg, PA
Megan Graham, MPH , Center for Healthy Development; Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA

Household energy use is an urgent public health issue in humanitarian settings where resources are extremely scarce. Reliance on traditional biomass fuels (firewood, dung and charcoal) for all cooking needs is common. The environmental impact of fuelwood gathering and overharvesting is significant. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by the health burdens of polluting fuels.

Thus, a gender-specific approach may be required for the implementation of successful household energy projects. Two dimensions of health must be considered; refugee security and the prevention of Gender Based Violence during fuel collection, and the environmental health reduction of exposure to pollutants during indoor cooking.

Gaia Association, an implementing partner to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) implements a clean ethanol cookstove and fuel program in the Jijiga Somali camps in Ethiopia. The program has made significant advancements in refugee health and security. These results were reflected in surveys and narrative accounts collected from 2005-2009, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Ethanol stoves save on average two fuel collection trips per week providing significant timesavings over firewood. Indoor air pollution monitoring showed that alcohol stoves achieved an 85% reduction of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions (99% in the lab) over traditional wood fires and a 93% reduction of CO in the refugee camps (93% in the lab).

A (new) cultural turn toward solar cooking—Evidence from six case studies across India and Burkina Faso. Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 2, June 2014, Pages 49–58.

Author: Pia Piroschka Otte.

Solar cooking can generally be described as a way to use the sun’s energy for cooking. Despite its multiple benefits as a clean, modular, simple source of energy, the implementation of solar cookers is not as widespread as one would hope. In the literature it is argued that solar cookers are not adopted because they are often considered to be culturally disruptive. This paper shines a new light on the cultural dynamics of cooking by showcasing the social acceptance of solar cookers. Six cases are presented from two different countries, Burkina Faso and India where a particular type of solar cooker (Scheffler reflectors) was installed among bakeries, shea nut butter producers, and steam kitchens. These cases demonstrate how cultural factors can be adoption-enhancing or limiting in different contexts. In essence, the paper finds that solar cookers are successfully implemented where they conform to underlying cultural factors. The study concludes that by implementing solar cookers as part of an existing socio-cultural framework, solar cookers move away from an image of a mere foreign technology to an integrated part of the target society.

Non-Invasive Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in Rural Indian Woman Exposed to Different Cooking Fuel Smoke. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2014.

Authors: Vinod Joon, et al.

In India more than 70% of the population use biomass fuels for cooking. Women, who traditionally carry out the cooking in this culture, experience the highest lifetime Carbon Monoxide (CO) exposure due to the burning of such fuels in traditional stoves. CO levels were measured in this study in the breathing zone atmosphere of cooks during the cooking cycle, using different fuels such as LPG, wood, crop residues and dung cakes, in a rural area of the National Capital Region (NCR) of India. The exhaled breath CO levels of the non-smoking female cooks were also measured before and after cooking. A high degree of correlation was obtained between CO levels during the cooking cycle and exhaled breath CO levels. The study suggests that the enhanced exhaled breath CO levels of the cooks were largely due to the burning of biomass fuels. A high value of R2 (0.79) was obtained during the model fitting exercise, which suggests the usefulness of fuel-type and cooking location (i.e., indoor/outdoor) as explanatory variables for predicting exhaled breath CO levels among cooks. The prevalence of CO poisoning symptoms was found to be significantly higher among the biomass fuel users. The study demonstrates the potential of the exhaled breath CO technique as a non-invasive, easy and economical alternative for predicting CO exposure due to the burning of biomass fuel in rural settings, where it may not always be possible to collect CO exposure data using the conventional invasive techniques.

Symposium on Assessing Exposures and Health Effects Related to Indoor Biomass Fuel Burning

  • August 18, 2014
  • 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. EST

Location: David P. Rall Building in the Rodbell Auditorium
NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC

The burning of solid fuels (e.g., wood, charcoal, dung) for cooking and heat results in a significant global health burden with over 4 million premature deaths per year attributed to indoor air pollution from inefficient use of solid fuels. Progress on this important public health challenge requires a concerted cross-disciplinary effort involving exposure scientists, toxicologists, epidemiologists, engineers, and public policy experts. This symposium will bring together researchers working in the area of indoor biomass fuel burning emissions and health effects to discuss the latest science, policy, and future directions.

A link to workshop materials will be posted on this page as they become available.

Contact Information for meeting:
Cynthia Rider, Ph.D., DABT
P.O. Box 12233, MD K2-12
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
T: (919) 541-9834 (voice)
eFAX: (301) 480-3272
Email: cynthia.rider@nih.gov


Time to Act to Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SCLP), 2014. UNEP.

Large-scale implementation of these SCLP measures by 2030 would likely prevent 2.4 (0.7–4.6) million premature deaths from outdoor air pollution annually and avoid annual crop yield losses of over 50 (30–135) million tons, which represents an increase of a up to 4% of the total annual global crop production. Implementation could also slow down the warming expected by 2050 by about 0.5°C (UNEP & WMO 2011) – and by about 0.7°C in the Arctic by 2040 – and could have significant regional climate benefits in sensitive regions of the world, reducing disruption of rainfall patterns and slowing the melting of some glaciers (WB & ICCI 2013). Action to reduce the climate impacts of HFCs, such as using hydrocarbon refrigerants in domestic refrigerators, freezers and small air conditioning units, could deliver additional near term climate change mitigation benefits.


Results-Based Financing for Clean Cookstoves in Uganda, 2014. IMC Worldwide for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES).

The fundamental idea behind results-based financing (RBF) is that payments to a service provider are made contingent on the delivery of a pre-agreed result, with achievement of the result being subject to independent verification. An RBF approach is feasible as part of a broad package of measures to scale up the efficient and clean cooking sector in Uganda – the larger goal being to achieve a range of benefits, including health, in coordination with the government and key stakeholders. Results-based incentives should be combined with robust monitoring and verification arrangements, institutional strengthening, and awareness-raising campaigns to support progress in the sector over time.

What are the main considerations for RBF design and implementation? The potential market size for a commercial market at scale is approximately 2.5 million households. This is based on 100 per cent of urban and 29 per cent of rural population being in the commercial segment for cookstoves and assumes an ICS penetration rate of 80 per cent. This translates into a yearly demand of 1.2 million ICS.5 The high-level estimate of the cost of implementing a full RBF scheme to achieve this market scale is between US$8 million and US$16 million plus administration costs. Scheme costs are based on an incentive level from US$5 to US$10 per ICS and a total number of incentive ICS sales of 3.6 million during the five years of the RBF intervention.6 In turn, this RBF level is based on an estimated7 current willingness to pay a price of below US$10 and an average charcoal ICS price of US$12 to US$20.

Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal. Environ Int. May 2014.

D. Devakumar, et al.

The exposure of children to air pollution in low resource settings is believed to be high because of the common use of biomass fuels for cooking. We used microenvironment sampling to estimate the respirable fraction of air pollution (particles with median diameter less than 4 μm) to which 7–9 year old children in southern Nepal were exposed. Sampling was conducted for a total 2649 h in 55 households, 8 schools and 8 outdoor locations of rural Dhanusha. We conducted gravimetric and photometric sampling in a subsample of the children in our study in the locations in which they usually resided (bedroom/living room, kitchen, veranda, in school and outdoors), repeated three times over one year. Using time activity information, a 24-hour time weighted average was modeled for all the children in the study. Approximately two-thirds of homes used biomass fuels, with the remainder mostly using gas.

The exposure of children to air pollution was very high. The 24-hour time weighted average over the whole year was 168 μg/m3. The non-kitchen related samples tended to show approximately double the concentration in winter than spring/autumn, and four times that of the monsoon season. There was no difference between the exposure of boys and girls. Air pollution in rural households was much higher than the World Health Organization and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nepal recommendations for particulate exposure.