Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review. Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec 2013. Eva A. Rehfuess, et al. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Globally, 2.8 billion people rely on household solid fuels. Reducing the resulting adverse health, environmental and development consequences will involve transitioning through a mix of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves (IS) of demonstrable effectiveness. To date, achieving uptake of IS has presented significant challenges.
Objectives: Conduct a systematic review of factors enabling or limiting large-scale uptake of IS.
Methods: Systematic searches were conducted through multi-disciplinary databases, specialist websites and contacting experts. The review drew on qualitative, quantitative and case studies, with standardized methods for screening, data extraction, critical appraisal and synthesis. Findings were summarized as “factors”, each relating to one of seven domains (households and settings; knowledge and perceptions; fuel and technology; finance, tax and subsidy; market development; regulation and standards; programmatic and policy mechanisms). Issues impacting equity were recorded.
Results: A total of 31 factors influencing uptake were identified from 57 studies conducted in Asia, Africa and Latin America. All domains matter: while factors such as offering technologies that meet household needs and save fuel, user training and support, effective financing and facilitative government action appear critical for success, none guarantee this, and all factors can be influential depending on context. The nature of available evidence did not permit further prioritization.
Conclusions: Achieving adoption and sustained use of IS at scale requires that all factors, spanning household/community and programme/societal levels, be assessed and supported by policy; proposals are made for a planning tool to aid this process and for further research which should incorporate effectiveness evaluation.