Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012 Nov 5.
Effect of reductions in biomass fuel exposure on symptoms of sleep apnea in children living in the Peruvian Andes: A preliminary field study.
Castañeda JL, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, Accinelli RA; The Pampa Cangallo Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura Research Group. Laboratorio de Respiración del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have evaluated the prevalence of sleep apnea in pediatric populations. Although environmental exposures to cigarette smoke (ECS) increase the risk of habitual snoring, no studies have thus far examined the potential contribution of indoor pollution in children.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of symptoms associated with sleep apnea in children exposed to traditional wood-burning stoves to open fire, and assess whether symptoms subside following implementation of improved less environmentally contaminating stoves.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Residents of the communities of Chucllapampa, Sayhuapata, and Alparcuna in Cangallo province, department of Ayacucho, Peru were surveyed on two occasions within 12 months before and after the installation of an improved Inkawasi wood stove. The frequency of symptoms associated with sleep apnea was assessed in all children <15 years of age using a previously validated questionnaire.
RESULTS: Parents of 59 children (62.7% males; mean age 7.76 ± 4.2 years) were interviewed representing >97% of the children in those small villages. The most common symptoms included nighttime awakenings, habitual snoring, repetitive movements during sleep, nasal congestion, and sore throat. After implementation of improved stoves in the homes, snoring (52.5% vs. 18.2%, P < 0.0001) nasal congestion (33.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.0001), behavioral hyperactivity (28.8% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.002), nighttime awakenings (42.4% vs. 1.7%, P < 0.0001), sore throat (38.2% vs. 5.5% P < 0.0001), breathing through the mouth during the day (33.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.001), daytime sleepiness (21.1% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.003), and falling asleep at school (14.6% vs. 0%, P < 0.03) were all significantly improved.
CONCLUSIONS: Children exposed to traditional biomass fuel stoves had a higher frequency of symptoms related to sleep apnea, which decrease with improvements in biomass pollution.