Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Dec 12, 2012
Impact of Locally-Produced, Ceramic Cookstoves on Respiratory Disease in Children in Rural Western Kenya
Eric M. Foote, Laura Gieraltowski, Tracy Ayers, Ibrahim Sadumah, Sithah Hamidah Faith, Benjamin J. Silk, Adam L.Cohen, Vincent Were, James M. Hughes and Robert E. Quick
Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ∼2,500 ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine stove use and observe signs of acute respiratory infection in children < 3 years of age. Reported stove use included 3-stone firepit only (81.8%), upesi jiko only (15.7%), and both (2.3%).
Lower, but not statistically significant, percentages of children in upesi jiko-using households than 3-stone firepit-using households had observed cough (1.3% versus 2.9%, rate ratio [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–1.03), pneumonia (0.9% versus 1.7%, RR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24–1.48), and severe pneumonia (0.3% versus 0.6%, RR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.17–2.62). Upesi jiko use did not result in significantly lower pneumonia rates. Further research on the health impact of improved cookstoves is warranted.