Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Atmospheric Environment, June 2014.
Authors: Habtamu Sanbataa, et al.
• Average PM2.5 concentration measured in homes using fuels exceed WHO guidelines.
• We examine differences in the PM2.5 concentration from fuel types in urban homes.
• We compare the emission concentration between different stove types.
• The efficiency of traditional stoves is only about 15%.
• The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves will improve indoor air quality.
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics.
The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m−3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m−3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m−3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m−3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.