Open Defecation: Evidence from a New Survey in Rural North India. Ecom & Polit Weekly, Sept 2014.

Authors: Diane Coffey, Aashish Gupta, Payal Hathi, Nidhi Khurana, Nikhil Srivastav, Sangita Vyas, Dean Spears

Despite economic growth, government latrine construction, and increasing recognition among policymakers that open defecation constitutes a health and human capital crisis, it remains stubbornly widespread in rural India. We present evidence from new survey data collected in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Many survey respondents’ behaviour reveals a preference for open defecation: over 40% of households with a working latrine have at least one member who defecates in the open.

Our data predict that if the government were to build a latrine for every rural household that lacks one, without changing sanitation preferences, most people in our sample in these states would nevertheless defecate in the open. Policymakers in India must lead a large-scale campaign to promote latrine use.

The intestinal microbiome in early life: health and disease

by Dan Campbell on September 25, 2014

The intestinal microbiome in early life: health and disease. Front. Immunol., 05 September 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00427

Marie-Claire Arrieta, Leah T. Stiemsma, et al.

Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3 years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma.

This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age.

 

Are you still pouring your Post-2015 water investments down the drain

September 25, 2014

Are you still pouring your Post-2015 water investments down the drain? Stockholm World Water Week, September 2, 2014. Full text Presentations by; Hanna Woodburn, Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing; Orlando Hernandez, USAID WASHplus Project; Jane Wilbur, WaterAid; and Corrie Kramer, Plan USA Individual Presentations WASH Pre- and Post-2015 Making an Economic Case for Investing in […]

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Turning Rapid Growth into Meaningful Growth: Sustaining the Commitment to Nutrition in Zambia

September 25, 2014

Turning Rapid Growth into Meaningful Growth: Sustaining the Commitment to Nutrition in Zambia, 2014. Institute of Development Studies. Full text Edited by Jody Harris, Lawrence Haddad and Silke Seco Grütz Zambia suffers high levels of child stunting and is struggling to achieve the nutrition-related MDGs, with significant constraints in the provision of services to address every […]

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UNICEF – Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2014

September 17, 2014

Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2014. UNICEF. Full text, pdf Substantial global progress has been made inreducing child deaths since 1990. The number ofunder-five deaths worldwide has declined from 12.7 (12.5, 12.9)1 million in 1990 to 6.3 (6.1, 6.7)million in 2013. While that translates into around 17,000 fewer children dying every day in […]

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Focus on WASH & Nutrition: WASHplus Weekly, Sept 5, 2014

September 5, 2014

Issue 160 | Sept 5, 2014 | Focus on WASH & Nutrition This issue contains some of the most recent studies on stunting, open defecation, nutritional interventions, and other WASH and nutrition issues. Recent reports from the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program discuss the impacts of improved sanitation on child growth in Vietnam and Lao PDR. Training […]

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Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for integration

August 21, 2014

Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for integration. Int J Public Health, June 2014. Full text Authors: Jordan Teague, E. Anna Johnston, Jay P. Graham. Objectives – This study explores the integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and nutrition programming for improved child health outcomes and aims to identify barriers to […]

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2nd International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2), Rome, Nov 19-21, 2014

August 21, 2014

The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2), an inclusive inter-governmental meeting on nutrition jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the High Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis (HLTF), IFAD, IFPRI, UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, WFP and the WTO, will be […]

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Maharashtra’s Child Stunting Declines: What is Driving Them? Findings of a Multidisciplinary Analysis

August 21, 2014

Maharashtra’s Child Stunting Declines: What is Driving Them? Findings of a Multidisciplinary Analysis, 2014. Full text, pdf Authors: Haddad, L., Nisbett, N., Barnett, Inka., Valli, E. Institute of Development Studies. In 2005, an alarming 39 percent of children were stunted in Maharashtra state, the second largest state in India with a population of over 100 […]

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The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India

August 20, 2014

The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India. BMJ Open, Aug 2014. Full text Authors: Deepthi Kattula, et al. Objective: To estimate the burden and assess prenatal and postnatal determinants of illnesses experienced by children residing in a semiurban slum, during the first 1000 days […]

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